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Aggregate and Volumetric Properties

Volumetric Properties

Several studies show that properties of Hot Mixture Asphalt (HMA) mix design materials, aggregate gradation and volumetric properties had an influence on their resistance to rutting. However, Volumetric Properties these properties do not impact in the same way this performance. For a given aggregate type, an infinity aggregate gradation type can be observed, and for each type of HMA several types of bituminous binder can be used. This article aims to measure the evolution of resistance to rutting according to the three main classes of National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) aggregate gradation (dense-graded, fine-graded and coarse-graded).<span “=””> To this end, a study was conducted on the measurement of rutting resistance for eight bituminous mixtures manufactured with two bitumen types and two types of manufacturing aggregates. The results showed that there is a priority order of these different parameters on the influence of the resistance to rutting. This highlights a competition between the properties of aggregate and type of granular skeleton. Indeed, for the same type of aggregate, asphalt binder type first impacts resistance to rutting of the HMA followed by aggregate gradation, volumetric properties of the mix and finally by the angularity of the aggregates. However, this order cannot be fixed and can depend of the intensity of each parameter.

Rutting generally refers to permanent deformation phenomena of the transverse profile of the roadway, which appear and grow as a result of traffic [1] [2]. The impact on the aggregate resistance to rutting of asphalt mixtures is explained by the material properties of formulations and the repeat of the traffic loads (accumulation phenomenon of the permanent deformation) [3] [4]. The properties of the mix design materials are specified for the bitumen by rheological tests (DSR) [5] or empirical test (Penetration test). Vanelstraete and Francken [6] showed that the permanent deformation measured by dynamic triaxial creep tests for a given bituminous mixture decreases with the rigidity of the bituminous binder used. Grimaux and Hiernaux [7] showed too that the resistance to rutting equipment of Road and Bridge laboratory Material (RBLM), generally increases in the presence of an increase in the hardness of the binder. A significant share of responsibility is granted to aggregate properties as angularity, percentage of fine particle and Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size (NMAS). Since aggregates make up entre 80% and 90% of the total volume or 94% to 95% of the mass of HMA, the quality of the aggregate significantly influences pavement performance [8]. Indeed, increased angularity causes an increase in rutting. On the other hand, another parameter to an important influence on the resistance to rutting of asphalt mixtures is aggregate gradation. However, for the same NMAS may have infinity of aggregate gradation, and for the same skeleton more value of angularity can be observed. This gives quite contrasting results from one study to another. El-Mamlouk and Basyouny [9] claimed that the coarse-graded HMA with great NMAS is more resistant to permanent deformation than fine-graded asphalt mixture. Stakston and Bahia [10] have shown that the resistance to rutting of asphalt mixtures largely depended on the aggregate gradation. Cross and Brown ( [11] ) on the other hand found that it’s angularity of fine aggregates that have a significant influence on the resistance to rutting and not the aggregate gradation. Manal and Attia [12] claimed that rutting resistance of asphalt paving mixes is affected by the type of aggregate and type of gradation. The diversity of results implies the existence of an interaction between the following parameters: binder stiffness, type of aggregate gradation, intrinsic and manufactured properties and volumetric properties of HMA. Indeed all the conclusions listed above are valid only if apart from the properties of mixtures considered in the comparison of performance between mixtures, all other remaining properties are constant. This is rarely the case between two bituminous mixtures. In this article a first approach to this interaction will be sought through the measurement of the resistance to rutting of bituminous mixtures with eight HMA manufactured with three classes of granularity granular skeletons [5]. These asphalt mixtures are manufactured with two types of aggregates (basalt and quartzite) and two types of asphalt binder (PG76-16 and PG 70-16), having substantially the same zeta potential and different flattening coefficients different fraction 8/16.

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Evaluation of Dynamic Modulus

Dynamic Modulus

Pavement design tools are not universal. Indeed, in the sizing of pavements in the USA, the prediction models used in the calculation of the dynamic modulus of HMA are not adapted to the characterization of the mineral skeleton of the HMA mix designed with the French method.<span “=””> <span “=””>This article aims to assess the predictive models of the dynamic modulus used in the mechanistic-empirical design for their use in the design of bituminous pavements, and to develop new predictive models taking into account the sieve series LC and AFNOR standards. A total of six types of mixtures were subjected to the determination of complex modulus testing by direct tensile-compression on cylindrical specimens (26-700 LC) over a temperature range (5) and frequency (5) data. Dynamic modulus prediction models |E*| are studied Witczak model 1999 and model Witczak 2006. These models do not take into account the AFNOR or LC mesh sieve, an approach was made in relation to the US mesh sieve to replace ρ200 (0.075 mm), ρ4 (4.76 mm), ρ38 (9.5 mm) and ρ34 (19 mm) respectively by the AFNOR mesh P0.08 (0.08 mm), R5 (5 mm), R10 (10 mm) and R14 (14 mm). The result is the production of two models whose are evaluated by correlation with the values |E*|<span “=””> <span “=””>of modulus measured in the laboratory is satisfactory (R2 = 0.83 respectively R2 = 0.71 and p-value = 0.00). The optimization of these approximate models gave new models with the same frame as the original models and a better correlation with the data observed in the laboratory (respectively R2 = 0. 95 and R2 = 0.91 p-value = 0.00).

In Mechanistical Empirical Design [1] (Hammons, 2007) the bituminous layer at level 2 and 3 requires the use of prediction model because at level 1 (highest reliability level) the dynamic modulus of Hot Mixture Asphalt (HMA) coatings is determined by laboratory tests [2] [3] [4] [5]. However, when these HMA are mix designed according to the French method with aggregates specified with different sieve mesh, the use of American models is no longer possible. This justifies the need to find a solution. One of the main parameters characterizing the behavior of “Hot Mixture Asphalt” (HMA) in the “Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide” (M-EPDG) is the dynamic modulus. However, it has three levels of characterization in this design method. Level 1 is the most accurate, and requires the determination by laboratory tests of the dynamic modulus and Poisson’s ratio of each type of mix involved in the pavement structure. The second and third level require the use of a master curve model from a prediction equation developed by the “National Cooperative Highway Research Program” (NCHRP) team [6]. In the dynamic modulus prediction approach for HMA, they exist two main methods. The first is called a discrete finite element method [7] [8] [9]; and a second method using empirical equations [9] [10] or micro prediction equations [9] [11]. The two best-known empirical models are the 1999 Witczak’s model and the 2006 Witczak’s model. They are characterized by the same parameters except that the viscosity of the binder and the loading frequency directly considered in the 1999 model are replaced by the shear modulus (|G*|) and the phase angle of the binder (δb). Parameters related to the granularity of the bituminous mixture in Witczak’s empirical models are specified according to US mesh screen (US Standard Series) described by the “American Association of highway and Transportation Official” (AASHTO) standards named 37.5 mm, 25.0 mm, 19.0 mm, 12.5 mm, 9.5 mm, 4.75 mm, 2.36 mm, 1.18 mm, 0.60 mm, 0.30 mm, 0.15 mm and 0.075 mm. What makes these models almost impossible to use when the sieve mesh from “Canadian Standard Series” (LC) or from French Standards Association (AFNOR) standards are used to learn about the two 14 mm, 10 mm, 8 mm, 5 mm, 2.5 mm, 1.25 mm, 0.315 mm, 0.16 mm and 0.08 mm. However, a statistical approach remains possible, because Witczak’s models are statistical models of sigmoidal type. These models are determined from only database from laboratory tests [4]. In order to make this approach possible similar tests have been carried out.

In this study, the dynamic modulus of asphalt mixtures with aggregate skeletons specified according to AFNOR and Lc sieve are determined by US sieve mesh approach by using the 1999 and 2006 Witczak’s models. The aggregates of Senegal used are basalt from Diack and quartzite from Bakel. Bitumen is 35/50 (AFNOR) grade (or pavement grade PG 70/16) ERES.

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Dynamic Modulus Prediction Model for Hot Mixture Asphalt

Mixture Asphalt

The most famous model known in prediction of dynamic modulus for asphalt concretes is the Witczak and Mixture Asphalt Hirsh models. These models Mixture Asphalt didn’t use the mineralogical and chemical properties of aggregates. Witczak models used the passing or refusal percentage to sieve diameters and Hirsh model used<span “=””> the volumetric analysis. All models developed until now considered that the aggregates were geotechnical conforming to standards. In this study the first mineralogical and chemical properties were considered through the percentage of silica in the rock source of aggregates and the electric aggregate particles charge zeta. Dynamic modulus values used for regression process are determined from complex modulus test on nine asphalt concretes mix designed with aggregate types (basalt of Diack, quartzite of Bakel and Limestone of Bandia). Between Twelve initial inputs,<span “=””> the statistical regression by exclusion process keeps only seven parameters as input for the model. The mineralogical model showed good accuracy with R2 equal to 0.09. The student test on the model parameters showed that all the parameters included in the model were meaningful with good p inferior to 0.05. The Fisher test on the model showed the same result. The analysis of the sensitivity of the mineralogical model to zeta potential showed that the dynamic modulus increases with the positive zeta-potentials and decreases with the negative zeta-potentials. The analysis of the sensitivity of the mineralogical model to the silica showed that the dynamic modulus decreases with the increase of the silica.

The principal objective of this paper is to develop a partial mineralogical and electrochemical dynamic modulus predictive model for asphalt concretes. Indeed, the impact of aggregate type has never been considered in the dynamic modulus of asphalt concrete or in the interpretations of factor which impacted the dynamic modulus test results. Only the passing and refusals percentage trough the U.S. sieve is considered in the Witczak models [1] [2]. The Hirsh model uses only the volumetric analysis parameters as “Voids in Mineral Aggregate” (VMA) or “Voids Filled with Asphalt” (VFA) [3]. The advanced rheological models do not use the aggregate properties but properties of a spring and a dashpot [4] – [9].

The development of mineralogical model needs results of complex modulus laboratory tests. Study was carried to “Laboratoire des Chaussées et Matériaux Bitumineux” (LCMB). Formulation of nine asphalt concretes was made with three aggregate types: basalt of Diack, quartzite of Bakel and limestone of Bandia [10] [11] [12] [13] and one type of asphalt binder (PG 70-16).

For each mixture, test temperatures used during test were 0°C, 10°C, 20°C, 40°C and 55°C and for each temperature frequencies used were 0.1 Hz, 0.3 Hz, 1 Hz, 5 Hz and 10 Hz. For the development of the mineralogical model, statistical analysis is used on Statistica software. But a primary choice of parameters for the mineralogical model must be done.

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Concrete Based on Recycled Aggregates

Recycled Aggregates The following study is aimed at valorizing an important part of waste from building demolition, Recycled Aggregates particularly concrete as a source of aggregates for their usage in new hydraulic concrete formulation. The experimental study mainly consisted of physical characterization of natural and recycled aggregates respectively and the impact of the latter on some properties of the new formulated concrete, actually their respective consistencies for fresh concrete and mechanical strength for the hardened one. The outcome of the study shows that the recycled aggregates are more heterogeneous and have a high capacity of water absorption, but which still respects the current standards of concrete.<span “=””> The need for additional water has been observed for recycled aggregates-based concrete so as to have the same workability. About the compressive strength, mechanical properties obviously show that, at 28 days from setting up, concretes from recycled aggregates can reach compressive strengths range between 20 and 25 MPa<span “=””> without any sophisticated technology. So, these results show that we can efficiently contribute to the protection of environment by valorizing waste from concrete-based building demolition on the one hand; and the preservation of natural reserve on the other. And both advantages contribute to sustainable development overall goals.

Waste from building demolition is found almost everywhere in streets, forests and in rivers. They are considered as a great source of nature pollution. Therefore, is can also be seen as a cause of environmental problems such as fauna and flora destruction, underground water pollution, saturation of public waste, unnecessary increase in additional sanitation water to be evacuated, nauseating garbage, insalubrity, flooding, etc. [1].

Recycling of such polluting waste by using it in new concrete formulation remains one of the possible solutions to that problem though Amor Ben Fraj et al., 2017 [2]; Wirquin et al., 2000 [3] as well as Courard L. et al. [4], assumed that usage of demolition materials as substitution aggregates is sometimes very difficult to realize since such materials are porous and so highly water absorbing.

The majority of concrete from buildings demolition-based recycled aggregates are used in road construction. Nevertheless, a better knowledge of its characteristics can contribute to development of that field of construction (Buyle-Bodin et al. 2002 [5] and Hussain et al. 2003 [6] ). This can only be achieved by a deep knowledge of fresh concrete.

However, recycled aggregates could be used as building materials in confection of concrete when the size of the building fits with their respective characteristics. Therefore, this work is aimed to study the strength of concrete formulated by recycled aggregates in order to propose its domain of usage. In so doing, we hope to find a way of protecting the environment against the building demolition waste. The global objective of this study is to take profit from aggregates from concrete building demolition so as to perform new concrete products and contribute to environment protection by reducing building demolition waste in nature.

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Unified Approach to Assess Engineering Performance

Assess Engineering

The setting of pre assessment criteria for soil compaction is hardly determined, especially, in case of undecided structure Assess Engineering locations. Different design Assess Engineering guidelines recommend achieving a specific value of relative density for the compaction of fill placement works. Alternatives were discussed through the literature to predict the value of relative density based on soil field tests (e.g. cone and standard penetration tests). This paper presents the weakness of using the Over Consolidation Ratio (OCR) as guidance to assess the value of cone tip resistance using the soil relative density. The variation of OCR (from 1 to 10) has a significant effect on the qc value up to 110% when compared to the normally consolidated state. Then normally consolidated state can logically cover the compaction process with variation of 20%, 33%, and 4% for relative density values 85%, 70%, and 60%, respectively. A unified approach is recommended to predict the compaction qc-performance line using normally consolidated condition and sand relative density.

In recent years, the field of construction has witnessed a great leap in building technologies with targeting a maximum cost saving. Nonetheless, the nature of the ground may obstacle this aim. Traditionally, for these cases, deep foundations (e.g. piles) are used to cope with the super-structure loads. Unfortunately, the using of piles leads to increase the cost of the project. Soil Improvement techniques are the most common solution utilized to achieve, for example, a proper soil bearing capacity with a target allowable settlement (i.e. the design criteria or the performance specifications) where the traditional over-excavation and replacement are not practicable for environmental, technical or economic reasons.

The design criteria for soil-treatment/fill-compaction may be unknown, especially, at the tender or site preparation stages in addition to undecided structures locations. However, the underneath soil/fill performance needs to be assessed prior to start the treatment process to determine the type and the depth of ground modifications.

This paper presents the weakness of using the Over Consolidation Ratio (OCR) as guidance to assess the value of cone tip resistance using the soil relative density. The variation of OCR (from 1 to 10) has a significant effect on the qc value up to 110% when compared to the normally consolidated state. A unified approach is recommended to predict the compaction qc-performance line using normally consolidated condition and sand relative density.

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A study of combined evaluation of suppliers based on correlation

A study of combined evaluation of suppliers based on correlation, With the development of socialized production, the social division of labor is increasingly elaborate and the specialization degree is becoming higherand higher. As a result, the supply chain system is more important in the productive process. Enterprises have already realized their suppliers have more significant impacton their own development.The evaluation and selection of strategic suppliers as well as establishing a good cooperationrelationship with them can completely enhance acompany’scompetition ability in respondingto the customers’ demands, key technologies, manufacturing costsandcustomer services, etc.But how to choose the best cooperativepartneris really a big problem for the leader of enterprises. In contemporary supply chain management, the performance of suppliers is evaluated against multiple criteria rather than considering a single factor.Quality, price, flexibility, lead time, prompt delivery, batch and other relevant factors are allconsidered as key factorsin evaluatingsuppliers. Meanwhile, balance their respective weightsarevery important.So, choosingthe most suitableevaluation methodis of crucial and imperative significance. Nevertheless, kinds of methods are available as the mature of supplier evaluation system. Giving what we know, we can draw this conclusion, using proper method to choose partner, under this circumstance, is very necessary.But different evaluation methods may lead to different results, which could cause inconsistent conclusions.And it will bring trouble to the decision makers. Therefore, it’s important to come up with an idea from anew perspective to eliminate the deviation of different single evaluation methods. The overall objective of the supplier evaluation process is to reduce the risksand offer supportto the purchaser .

Evaluation and selection problem of supplier has been studied extensively.The evaluationof logistics service providersis extremelyimportant to enterprise management. Worldwide scholars have publishedvarious evaluation methods and theories. In order to solve the problem of evaluation diversity, the combined evaluationmodelswere proposed. Combined evaluation methods will improve the utilization of suppliers’ scores and reduce the random errors and systemdeviation in the evaluation process. It will make the results of evaluation more scientific andreliable.From the scientometricperspective, the study of combined evaluation is inthe initial stage. Most studies on combined evaluation are focus on the hybridsof two or three approaches, such as the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), case-based reasoning (CBR), data envelopment analysis (DEA), fuzzy set theory, genetic algorithm (GA), mathematical programming, simple multi-attribute rating technique (SMART), etc. Few studieshave been done abroad, which mainly focus on analyzing the reasonsof evaluation diversity and how to determine the deviation of single evaluation methodusing computer simulation …

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Model logistics service processes

Integrating declarative and imperative approach to model logistics service processes, The logistics industry is considered as a classic example of the service-based industries, which hold an increasingly dynamic and pivotal role in today’s knowledge-based economies (Chapman, Soosay & Kandampully, 2003). Transformed from the business concept of transportation to that of serving the entire logistical needs of customers, logistics services have to be customized by customer segments to deliver specific, flexible services to individual clients (Mentzer, Flint & Hult, 2001; Reijers, 2003).As a process-oriented business (Chow, Choy & Lee, 2007; Rutner & Langley Jr, 2000), logistics service is defined as the process of delivering products and/or services to customers, in a way that creates added value to customers. Superior logistics performance is considered related to simultaneous integration of internal and external operational processes (Rodrigues, Stank & Lynch, 2004; Van der Veeken & Rutten, 1998). Thus, there is a widespread recognition of the importance of correctly modeling service processes as an effective way to provide a comprehensive understanding of the process and to enhance the service quality to clients (Aguilar-Saven, 2004; Reijers, 2003). However, surprisingly few articles published in academic journals in this respect for logistics service process modeling.This paper aims to construct the logistics service process model using the integration of the declarative approach and imperative approach. The remainder of this paper is structured as follows: Section 2 provides the state of the art of service process modeling in logistics. Followed by, the methodology is discussed in Section 3. Section 4 extensively elaborates the case study for a Chinese bulk port. Finally, Section 5 concludes the paper and discusses the future work

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Port logistics park information construction

Current situation and countermeasures of port logistics park information construction, In information age, the full development of logistics industry depends on itsinformatization. An important feature of modern logistics is the use of advanced information tools to managelogistics activities. Currently,numbersof experts and scholars at home and abroad have donein-depth research on the construction of logistics parks, especially on construction of information technology, and made a series of achievements. For example, Ketikidis, Koh, and Dimitriadis (2008) didresearch on the supply chain management application status of logistics information in southeast Europe, and proposed future development countermeasures. Hu (2004)carried on the analysis and design to the logistics information of modern postal industry. In view of the logistics development situation of our land port, and combine with the international logistics park in Pingxiang, GuangxiProvince, Gui, Sun and Wang(2007)explored park informationization construction based on SOA architecture. These scientific results have important contributions to the promotion of China’s logistics park information construction.As the logistics development and location in different regions has itsown particularity,existing research results are not universal. Especially in the vast territory of China’s Xinjiang region, it borders with many countries, and has various types of ports. There are 17 national-levelland ports. These ports have inherent geographical advantages,butmany have not been supported by commensurate scientific research, and did not play its due role. This paper conducts the research on a national-levelport in Xinjiang region as an example, applies some cutting-edge technologiesto the design of the information system, and describesits practical implementation.

The logistics park (Fan & Wang, 2005)is also known as logistics sites, which is a fully functioning place opened up by government from the overall interests of the city. It consists of one or more logistics enterprises concentrated on spatial layout, providing a certain category, scale and a high level of integrated logistics services, forming logistics rally point.The drive oflogistics park informationizationwill effectively lead information process in various fields, and promote the socio-economic development of the whole region

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Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation

Model of service-oriented catering supply chain performance evaluation, Since 1991, China’s catering industry, always keep the double-digit growth (Date from Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China). As the income level of urban and rural resident’sunceasing enhancement and people’s life rhythm becomes faster, dining out or calling take-away food has become a way of life, so Chinese food industry’s retail sales are still increasing. The catering industry keeps growing, but China’s catering market competition is still fierce, especially the competition in the supply chain. For the catering enterprises, it is like a sail against the current catering market, fall behind. Now the supply chain is not only the supply chain of product, it includes products, information, logistics service, etc. The product is only a part of the service, so in order to have a comprehensive evaluation of the supply chain, the service should be oriented. it means we should not only put focus on the products, but also the food safety, food quality, enterprises’ responsibility. Itis an integrated supply chain based on service. Absolutely, the service-oriented catering supply chain is the key to increase the competitiveness of the catering enterprises. The enterprises in the service-oriented catering supply chain need to build a stable partnership, and the enterprises should do benefit sharing, information sharing and so on, at last all the enterprises in the supply chain will create a win-win situation. In order to integrate and optimize supply chain, supply chain performance evaluation model is needed to be constructed.  The main contents of the performance research are including index system construction, the choice of methods and empirical analysis. Ding and Wang (2010) constructed a evaluation system based on research on characteristics of core enterprises in the supply chain. You (2010) constructed an evaluation index system of supply chain performance in agriculture product processing field. Different industries have different indexes to evaluate the performance of supply chain. This paper summarized the current domestic and foreign research about the dimensions of supply chain performance evaluation indexes. And about the supply chain performance evaluation method, scholars also did the related research. It includes Benchmarking method, Expert evaluation method, Mathematical statistics, Balanced score method, analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the fuzzy AHP method, Grey correlation method and data envelopment analysis. Qian and Zhu (2002) had research on Supply Chain Benchmarking. Huang and Hua (2007) use expert method to establish the evaluation index on green supply chain. Liang (2011) combined AHP and DEA method to evaluate Supply Chain Performance. Chen and Yan (2011) construct an alternative network DEA model that embodies the internal structure for supply chain performance evaluation. it take the perspective of organization mechanism to deal with the complex interactions in supply chain. Dong, Young, Sung et al. (2012) developed a framework of service supply chain performance measurement to apply into the hotel supply chain. Compared with traditional supply chain, service-oriented catering supply chain has characteristics of products diversity, timeliness of product, price stability, the information sharing, the logistics capability, customer satisfaction, food safety and so on. Establish a qualified supply chain can guarantee food fresh, information sharing efficient logistics capability and improve customer satisfaction. Though How to optimize and integrate the supply chain, which part should be first to optimize, how to know whether the supply chain had achieved the demand level. What we have to do is to build a supply chain evaluation system

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Eco-efficient based logistics network design

Eco-efficient based logistics network design in hybrid manufacturing/ remanufacturing system in low-carbon economy, Remanufacturing supply chain consists of not only the traditional forward logistics network for manufacturing and distribution but also the reverse logistics supply chain logistics network for remanufacturing, which is a typical closed-loop manufacturing/remanufacturing hybrid system (Ma &Dai, 2005). During the design of hybrid manufactured/remanufacturing logistics network, economic efficient and environmental efficiency have been treated as two separated goals for long, and they haven’t been integrated with each other, which is against the interest of low-carbon economy. Low-carbon economy represents the lowest carbon emission, environmental impact and economic cost during the development (Fang, 2010). In essence, it is the pursuit of eco-efficiency, which is a win-win situation between economic and environmental efficiency (Xu, 2011). In regard to this, the logistics network design of eco-efficient based hybrid manufacturing/remanufacturing system aiming at both cost optimization and energy conservation & emission reduction has been the pressing task. Increasing attentions have been paid to examine the integrated logistics network design in hybrid remanufacturing system, but only adopts single objective, normally minimum cost (Ma &Dai, 2005; Xie, Zhao& Ren,2008; Francasa &Minner, 2009;Easwarana &Üsterb, 2010). Among the following eco-efficient logistics network design research, Bloemhof-Ruwaard(1996) examines the logistics network design of pulp and paper industry by adopting life cycle analysis (LCA) to achieve an eco-efficiency index for every process during paper production. But this network is only a recycling type, which is far less simple than hybrid remanufacturing system. Moreover, he then adopts the index to optimize logistics network, but in his model, environmental impact is the only objective function. (Neto Fronta, Bloemhof-Ruwaard, Van Nunen and Van Heck (2008) develop a model adopting dual-objective programming to optimize economic cost and environmental impact simultaneously. Bloemhof and Neto’s research adopt the same method in analyzing environmental impact, i.e., global warming, toxic gas and solid waste. Neto Fronta, Walther, Bloemhof-Ruwaard, van Nunen and Spengler (2009) and Krikke,Bloemhof-Ruwaard and Wassenhove(2003) model adopts three objectives: cost, energy consumption and solid waste. Neto focuses more on the relationship between solid waste and energy consumption while Krikkle et al. integrates product design with the design of logistics network and has proved that appropriate product design can enhance the efficiency of logistics network. This research associates carbon emission to our objective function and uses Pareto sets to analyze how to balance profitability and environmental impacts in designing remanufacturing closed-loop supply chain in the context of low-carbon economy.Thetrade-off relationshipsexistamong the objectives in this paper (profitability, CO2 emission and solid waste discharge), i.e., it is impossible to realize maximum profitability, optimized energy consumption and solid waste discharge simultaneously (Neto et al., 2008; Netoet al., 2009).The idea of Pareto-optimal is adopted to search for the best solution to avoid negative influence on other solutions and all trade-offs between the logistic network cost and its environmental impact. ToobtainPareto boundary, a tri-objective mathematical programming issetup. Numeric examples are used to analyze how to realize Pareto improvement, the improvement on planet and profit simultaneouslyin designing logistics network. To meet the need of low-carbon economy, this paper attempts to search forthe solutions for manufacturing companies to comprise bothbusiness and the environment given a certain level of carbon emissionconstraints